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USMLE Road Map Neuroscience 2nd Edition PDF

USMLE Road Map Neuroscience 2nd Edition PDF

USMLE Road Map Neuroscience 2nd Edition PDF


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Table of Contents

Using the Road Map Series for Successful Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii
Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix
1. Development, Gross Anatomy, and Blood Supply of the Nervous System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems (CNS, PNS) 1
Development of Nervous System 3
The Major Components of the CNS 8
Arterial Blood Supply of the CNS 11
Stroke and its Causes 16
Arterial Blood Supply of the Spinal Cord 19
Venous Drainage of the CNS and Intracranial Bleeds 20
Circumventricular Organs 21
Ventricular System 22
Clinical Problems 25
Matching Problems 29
Answers 31
2. Cytology of the Nervous System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Neurons 33
Axonal Transport 37
Synaptic Terminals 39
Chemical Neurotransmission 41
Neurotransmitter Receptors 45
Glial and Supporting Cells in the CNS and PNS 48
The Blood-Brain Barrier 53
Response of Axons to Destructive Lesions or Irritative Lesions 53
Clinical Problems 55
Matching Problems 58
Answers 59
3. Spinal Cord . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Organization and Roots 61
Motor Neural Systems 66
Reflexes 69
Sensory Systems 77
Dorsal Column/Medial Lemniscal System 77
Anterolateral System 80
Brown-Séquard Syndrome 85
Clinical Problems 89
Matching Problems 94
Answers 96
4. Brainstem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
Midbrain, Pons, and Medulla and their Cranial Nerves 99
Components of Motor and Sensory Systems in the Brainstem 105
Reticular Formation 110
Motor Nuclei of Cranial Nerves 110
Sensory Nuclei of Cranial Nerves 117
Cochlear Nerve and the Central Auditory System 120
Vestibular Nerve and the Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex 123
Arterial Blood Supply to the Brainstem 127
Brainstem Syndromes 128
Clinical Problems 131
Matching Problems 135
Answers 138
5. Cerebellum and Basal Ganglia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
Functional Comparison 141
Organization of the Cerebellum 142
Cerebellar Inputs 144
Cerebellar Outputs 145
Cerebellar Lesions 145
Organization of the Basal Ganglia 148
The Basal Ganglia Motor Pathways 148
The Other Basal Ganglia Pathways 152
Clinical Problems 154
Matching Problems 155
Answers 156
6. Diencephalon and Limbic System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
Thalamus 158
Hypothalamus 162
Epithalamus 167
Limbic System 168
Olfactory System 168
Hippocampus and Alzheimer’s Dementia 168
Amygdala and Klüver-Bucy Syndrome 172
Clinical Problems 173
Matching Problems 174
Answers 175
7. Visual System, Pupillary Reflexes, and Conjugate Eye
Movements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
The Eyeball 177
Retina 180
Visual Processing and Deficits 182
Ocular Reflexes 185
Lateral Geniculate Nucleus 187
Primary Visual or Calcarine Cortex 188
Conjugate Eye Movements 190
Clinical Problems 194
Matching Problems 197
Answers 199
8. Cerebral Cortex and Higher Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
Organization 201
Sensory Areas of Cerebral Cortex 203
Hemispheric Dominance, Handedness, and Language 203
Functional Features of the Frontal, Parietal, Temporal, and Occipital Lobes 204
The Internal Capsule 214
Electroencephalogram 215
The Ascending Arousal System 216
Sleep 217
Seizures 219
Arterial Blood Supply of the Cerebral Cortex 220
Clinical Problems 222
Matching Problems 224
Answers 225
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227


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