Human Gross Anatomy PDF – An Outline Text
14.13 MB PDF
An in-depth understanding of human gross anatomy is fundamental to the practice of clinical medicine. Unfortunately, virtually all medical schools have severely curtailed the class hours allotted for anatomy instruction. As a result, anatomists have been challenged to develop more efficient educational methods in order to preserve high academic standard. This book was written as a response to this challenge.
The text presents gross anatomy in an expanded outline format. Its conciseness and logical organization permit easy previewing of the subject matter before a lecture or laboratory as well as allowing efficient learning and reviewing of the material before an examination. Notwithstanding its succinct style, the text’s coverage of gross anatomy is comprehensive and contains a level of detail appropriate for the medical student.
The Introduction sets forth basic principles and terminology that will serve the student throughout the remainder of the text. Overviews of the nervous, muscular, skeletal, and vascular systems are also included in this Introduction. The main body of the text is organized on the basis of regional anatomy in the following sequence: the back, thorax, abdomen, perineum and pelvis, head and neck, upper limb, and lower limb. Clinical notes that highlight anatomy relevant to current medical practice appear throughout these chapters. Since each regional anatomy chapter is complete in itself, the order in which each is studied is optional.
During the writing of this text, some of the most difficult decisions involved the subject matter to be included in the chapters. A guidepost in this process was the question, “Will this information contribute significantly to a student’s understanding of anatomy, especially as It relates to the practice of medicine?” When, for example, this question was posed for the study of the cranial nerves and autonomic nervous system, the details of this subject seemed highly relevant to clinical medicine. Thus, their anatomy was given extensive treatment. In contrast, when this criterion was applied to the relationship of the lurnbricals, palmar interossei, and dorsal interossei to the deep transverse metacarpal ligaments, I thought this information was beyond the scope of applicable anatomy and excluded it from the text.
Other difficult deliberations involved the selection of and priority given to anatomical terms. Although the guidance offered by the sixth edition (1989) of Nomina Anatomica proved invaluable, common usage took precedence over strict adherence to Nomina Anatomica. For example, dorsal and ventral roots of a spinal nerve were selected over posterior and anterior roots. When the commonly used terms were chosen, the Nomina Anatomica term was often noted in parentheses. Synonyms and eponyms were also parenthetically cited after Nomina Anatomica terms. Most terms were anglicized; for instance, foramen transversarium became transverse foramen.
Since this text was designed for use with an atlas, no illustrations were included. This decision was based on two considerations: ( l ) essentially all students of gross anatomy purchase an atlas, and (2) substantial classroom testing of the text indicated that additional illustrations were unnecessary.
Earlier versions of this text have been favorably received by my own students. Because it circumscribes the subject matter the student needs to master, anxiety that might have arisen from ambiguity about what the student would be examined upon was significantly reduced. Additionally, students showed more enthusiasm for self-instruction when the contours of the course were more clearly defined. This permitted a more Socratic method of teaching, whereby objectives for a formal lecture could be achieved through a more intellectually stimulating question-and-answer discussion. I hope other educators and students of anatomy will also find the book a valuable instructional and learning tool. I welcome their comments.
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