Echocardiographic Anatomy in the Fetus 1st Edition PDF
103.62 MB PDF
Over the last two decades, the value of examining the fetal heart has moved from an experimental procedure of diagnostic curiosity to a front-line form of evaluating fetal cardiac health and disease. There have been numerous advances in the associated technology, including high-resolution imaging, the introduction of reliable color flow and pulse Doppler, and M-Mode and continuous-wave Doppler recordings in some instruments. Such advances continue, with the potential for 3D imaging using spatiotemporal image correlation (STIC) and full-volume fetal technology.
The techniques used by obstetric sonographers in all fields, including physicians from the fields of radiology, obstetrics, and pediatric cardiology, together with technologists who support and do most of the scanning, require a fundamental understanding of ultrasound as well as anatomy, physiology, and the various cardiac pathologies that occur in the fetus. This book addresses these fundamentals, providing correlations by means of diagrams and images of fetal cardiac morphology and pathology. The scans are quite unique, having been collected over several years by the principal author, Dr. Enrico M. Chiappa, from his laboratories in Italy, and provide exquisite echocardiography of normal and congenitally malformed hearts. These are complemented by the excellent pathological images of Dr. Andrew C. Cook and Dr. Gianni Botta, who provided high-quality images of normal and pathological fetal heart conditions, which are displayed as support for the echocardiographic images.
The organization of this book is oriented toward practitioners. The first section provides general guidelines for imaging the fetal body and heart, for segmental analysis, and for diagnosis. The second section takes a view-oriented approach, describing first the transverse views and then the longitudinal views of the fetal body and how each echocardiographic projection best displays a particular pathological entity. The third section contains essential information pertaining to the new technique of 3D/4D echocardiography and the role of the pathologist in heart disease, which expands further the value of this text for providing references and comparisons with standard imaging techniques.
The authors obviously gave a great deal of thought to this project – from the choice of images in the text, which include the clearest descriptions and labels, to the accompanying DVD, which contains complex moving echocardiographic images. The objective is to provide the reader with something greater than a static representation of the fetal cardiac morphology while retaining the ability to refer directly to morphological comparisons and consult with the text for greater detail. This work will have great appeal to physicians and technologists involved in obtaining and interpreting such images and will provide the obstetric, cardiological, and radiological communities with an excellent reference for comparing cases seen in their daily practice.
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