BRS Embryology 6th Edition PDF

BRS Embryology 6th Edition



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Table of Contents

1. PREFERTILIZATION EVENTS 1
I. Sexual Reproduction 1
II. Chromosomes 1
III. Meiosis 2
IV. Oogenesis: Female Gametogenesis 2
V. Spermatogenesis: Male Gametogenesis 4
VI. Clinical Considerations 4
Study Questions for Chapter 1 8
Answers and Explanations 10

2. WEEK 1 OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT (DAYS 1–7) 12
I. Fertilization 12
II. Cleavage and Blastocyst Formation 13
III. Implantation 14
IV. Clinical Considerations 14
Study Questions for Chapter 2 15
Answers and Explanations 17

3. WEEK 2 OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT (DAYS 8–14) 18
I. Further Development of the Embryoblast 18
II. Further Development of the Trophoblast 18
III. Development of Extraembryonic Mesoderm 20
IV. Clinical Considerations 20
Study Questions for Chapter 3 22
Answers and Explanations 24

4. EMBRYONIC PERIOD (WEEKS 3–8) 26
I. General Considerations 26
II. Further Development of the Embryoblast 26
III. Vasculogenesis (De Novo Blood Vessel Formation) 28
IV. Hematopoiesis (Blood Cell Formation) 31
V. Clinical Considerations 31
Study Questions for Chapter 4 33
Answers and Explanations 35

5. CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM 37
I. Formation of Heart Tube 37
II. Primitive Heart Tube Dilations 37
III. The Aorticopulmonary Septum 39
IV. The Atrial Septum 41
V. The Atrioventricular Septum 43
VI. The Interventricular Septum 45
VII. The Conduction System of the Heart 46
VIII. Coronary Arteries 47
IX. Development of the Arterial System 47
X. Development of the Venous System 49
Study Questions for Chapter 5 50
Answers and Explanations 53

6. PLACENTA AND AMNIOTIC FLUID 55
I. Formation of the Placenta 55
II. Placental Components: Decidua Basalis
and Villous Chorion 55
III. Placental Membrane 58
IV. The Placenta as an Endocrine Organ 59
V. The Umbilical Cord 60
VI. Circulatory System of the Fetus 60
VII. Amniotic Fluid 62
VIII. Twinning 62
IX. Clinical Considerations 65
Study Questions for Chapter 6 68
Answers and Explanations 70

7. NERVOUS SYSTEM 71
I. Overview 71
II. Development of the Neural Tube 71
III. Neural Crest Cells 73
IV. Placodes 75
V. Vesicle Development of the Neural Tube 75
VI. Histogenesis of the Neural Tube 76
VII. Layers of the Early Neural Tube 78
VIII. Development of the Spinal Cord 78
IX. Development of the Myelencephalon 79
X. Development of the Metencephalon 80
XI. Development of the Mesencephalon 81
XII. Development of the Diencephalon, Optic Structures,
and Hypophysis 82
XIII. Development of the Telencephalon 83
XIV. Development of the Sympathetic Nervous System 85
XV. Development of the Parasympathetic Nervous System 85
XVI. Development of the Cranial Nerves 86
XVII. Development of the Choroid Plexus 86
XVIII. Congenital Malformations of the Central Nervous System 87
Study Questions for Chapter 7 93
Answers and Explanations 96

8. EAR 98
I. Overview 98
II. The Internal Ear 98
III. The Membranous and Bony Labyrinths 100
IV. Middle Ear 100
V. External Ear 101
VI. Congenital Malformations of the Ear 101
Study Questions for Chapter 8 104
Answers and Explanations 105

9. EYE 106
I. Development of the Optic Vesicle 106
II. Development of other Eye Structures 109
III. Congenital Malformations of the Eye 110
Study Questions for Chapter 9 113
Answers and Explanations 114

10. DIGESTIVE SYSTEM 115
I. Overview 115
II. Derivatives of the Foregut 115
III. Derivatives of the Midgut 123
IV. Derivatives of the Hindgut 127
V. Anal Canal 130
VI. Mesenteries 130
Study Questions for Chapter 10 131
Answers and Explanations 133

11. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 134
I. Upper Respiratory System 134
II. Lower Respiratory System 134
Study Questions for Chapter 11 142
Answers and Explanations 143

12. HEAD AND NECK 144
I. Pharyngeal Apparatus 144
II. Development of the Thyroid Gland 144
III. Development of the Tongue 146
IV. Development of the Face 147
V. Development of the Palate 148
VI. Development of the Mouth 149
VII. Development of the Nasal Cavities 149
VIII. Clinical Considerations 150
Study Questions for Chapter 12 153
Answers and Explanations 154

13. URINARY SYSTEM 155
I. Overview 155
II. Development of the Metanephros 155
III. Relative Ascent of the Kidneys 156
IV. Blood Supply of the Kidneys 157
V. Development of the Urinary Bladder 158
VI. Development of the Female Urethra 159
VII. Development of the Male Urethra 160
VIII. Clinical Considerations 160
IX. Development of the Suprarenal Gland 164
Study Questions for Chapter 13 167
Answers and Explanations 168

14. FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM 169
I. The Indifferent Embryo 169
II. Development of the Gonads 169
III. Development of the Genital Ducts 171
IV. Development of the Primordia of External Genitalia 173
V. Tanner Stages of Female Sexual Development 174
VI. Clinical Considerations 174
Study Questions for Chapter 14 178
Answers and Explanations 179

15. MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM 180
I. The Indifferent Embryo 180
II. Development of the Gonads 180
III. Development of the Genital Ducts 182
IV. Development of the Primordia of External Genitalia 184
V. Tanner Stages of Male Sexual Development 184
VI. Clinical Considerations 184
VII. Summary 189
Study Questions for Chapter 15 190
Answers and Explanations 191

16. INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM 192
I. Skin 192
II. Hair and Nails 196
III. Mammary, Sweat, and Sebaceous Glands 199
IV. Teeth 201
Study Questions for Chapter 16 203
Answers and Explanations 204

17. SKELETAL SYSTEM 205
I. Skull 205
II. Vertebral Column 209
III. Ribs 214
IV. Sternum 214
V. Bones of the Limbs and Limb Girdles 214
VI. Osteogenesis 215
VII. General Skeletal Abnormalities 215
Study Questions for Chapter 17 218
Answers and Explanations 219

18. MUSCULAR SYSTEM 220
I. Skeletal Muscle 220
II. Smooth Muscle 221
III. Cardiac Muscle 222
IV. Clinical Considerations 222
Study Questions for Chapter 18 224
Answers and Explanations 225

19. UPPER LIMB 226
I. Overview of Development 226
II. Vasculature 226
III. Musculature 228
IV. Nerves: The Brachial Plexus 228
V. Rotation of the Upper Limb 229
VI. Skeletal 229
Study Questions for Chapter 19 231
Answers and Explanations 232

20. LOWER LIMB 233
I. Overview of Development 233
II. Vasculature 233
III. Musculature 235
IV. Nerves: The Lumbosacral Plexus 235
V. Rotation of the Lower Limb 236
VI. Skeletal 237
Study Questions for Chapter 20 239
Answers and Explanations 240

21. BODY CAVITIES 241
I. Formation of the Intraembryonic Coelom 241
II. Partitioning of the Intraembryonic Coelom 241
III. Positional Changes of the Diaphragm 242
IV. Clinical Considerations 243
Study Questions for Chapter 21 244
Answers and Explanations 245

22. PREGNANCY 246
I. Endocrinology of Pregnancy 246
II. Pregnancy Dating 247
III. Pregnancy Milestones 247
IV. Prenatal Diagnostic Procedures 248
V. Fetal Distress During Labor (Intrapartum) 249
VI. The Apgar Score 249
VII. Puerperium 250
VIII. Lactation 250
IX. Small-for-Gestational Age (SGA) Infant 250
X. Collection and Storage of Umbilical Cord Blood (UCB) 251
Study Questions for Chapter 22 252
Answers and Explanations 253

23. TERATOLOGY 254
I. Introduction 254
II. Infectious Agents 254
III. Torch Infections 256
IV. Childhood Vaccinations 258
V. Category X Drugs (Absolute Contraindication In Pregnancy) 258
VI. Category D Drugs (Definite Evidence of Risk to Fetus) 259
VII. Chemical Agents 260
VIII. Recreational Drugs 261
IX. Ionizing Radiation 261

Study Questions for Chapter 23 262
Answers and Explanations 263
Comprehensive Examination 264
Answers and Explanations 272
Credits 279
Index 287


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