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BRS Biochemistry Molecular Biology and Genetics 6th Edition 2014 PDF

BRS Biochemistry Molecular Biology and Genetics 6th Edition 2014 PDF

BRS Biochemistry Molecular Biology and Genetics 6th Edition

49.8 MB PDF

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Table of Contents

1. Fuel Metabolism and Nutrition: Basic Principles 1
I. Metabolic Fuels and Dietary Components 1
II. The Fed or Absorptive State 5
III. Fasting 7
IV. Prolonged Fasting (Starvation) 9
Review Test 11

2. Ba sic Aspects of Biochemistry: Organic Chemistry,
Acid–Base Chemistry, Amino Acids, Protein
Structure and Function, and Enzyme Kinetics 19
I. A Brief Review of Organic Chemistry 19
II. Acids, Bases, and Buffers 20
III. Amino Acids and Peptide Bonds 22
IV. Protein Structure 25
V. Enzymes 34
Review Test 39

3. G ene Expression (Transcription), Synthesis of
Proteins (Translation), and Regulation of Gene
Expression 51
I. Nucleic Acid Structure 52
II. Synthesis of DNA (Replication) 58
III. Synthesis of RNA (Transcription) 66
IV. Protein Synthesis (Translation of mRNA) 70
V. Regulation of Protein Synthesis 77
VI. Recombinant DNA and Medicine 86
Review Test 95

4. C ell Biology, Signal Transduction, and
the Molecular Biology of Cancer 109
I. Compartmentation in Cells; Cell Biology and Biochemistry 110
II. Cell Signaling by Chemical Messengers 116
III. The Molecular Biology of Cancer 125
IV. Cancer and Apoptosis 131
V. Cancer Requires Multiple Mutations 133
VI. Viruses and Human Cancer 133
Review Test 134

5. G eneration of ATP from Metabolic Fuels and
Oxygen Toxicity 145
I. Bioenergetics 145
II. Properties of Adenosine Triphosphate 147
III. Electron Carriers and Vitamins 148
IV. TCA Cycle 154
V. Electron Transport Chain and Oxidative Phosphorylation 159
VI. Oxygen Toxicity and Free-Radical Injury 164
Review Test 170

6. Car bohydrate Metabolism 181
I. Carbohydrate Structure 181
II. Proteoglycans, Glycoproteins, and Glycolipids 185
III. Digestion of Carbohydrates 188
IV. Glycogen Structure and Metabolism 190
V. Glycolysis 197
VI. Gluconeogenesis 204
VII. Fructose and Galactose Metabolism 209
VIII. Pentose Phosphate Pathway 212
IX. Maintenance of Blood Glucose Levels 215
Review Test 220

7. Lipid and Ethanol Metabolism 230
I. Lipid Structure 232
II. Membranes 234
III. Digestion of Dietary Triacylglycerol 235
IV. Fatty Acid and Triacylglycerol Synthesis 237
V. Formation of Triacylglycerol Stores in Adipose Tissue 242
VI. Cholesterol and Bile Salt Metabolism 243
VII. Blood Lipoproteins 246
VIII. Fate of Adipose Triacylglycerols 251
IX. Fatty Acid Oxidation 252
X. Ketone Body Synthesis and Utilization 257
XI. Phospholipid and Sphingolipid Metabolism 259
XII. Metabolism of the Eicosanoids 262
XIII. Ethanol Metabolism 264
Review Test 268

8. N itrogen Metabolism–Amino Acids, Purines,
Pyrimidines, and Products Derived from
Amino Acids 279
I. Protein Digestion and Amino Acid Absorption 280
II. Addition and Removal of Amino Acid Nitrogen 282
III. Urea Cycle 284
IV. Synthesis and Degradation of Amino Acids 286
V. Interrelationships of Various Tissues in Amino Acid Metabolism 294
VI. Tetrahydrofolate, Vitamin B12, and S-Adenosylmethionine 298
VII. Special Products Derived from Amino Acids 302
Review Test 313

9. Molecular Endocrinology and An Overview of
Tissue Metabolism 325
I. Synthesis of Hormones 325
II. General Mechanisms of Hormone Action (Only a Summary is
Provided here as this has Already
Been Covered in Chapter 4.) 329
III. Regulation of Hormone Levels 329
IV. Actions of Specific Hormones 330
V. Biochemical Functions of Tissues 339
Review Test 350

10. H uman Genetics—An Introduction 359
I. Mendelian Inheritance Patterns 360
II. Genes 360
III. Mutations 361
IV. Inheritance Patterns 362
V. A Summary of Inheritance Patterns is given in Table 10.1. 367
VI. Cytogenetics 367
VII. Population Genetics 372
VIII. Multifactorial Diseases (Complex Traits) 372
IX. Triplet Repeat Expansions 373
X. Imprinting 374
XI. The Genetics of Tumor Suppressors 376
Review Test 378

Comprehensive Examination 389
Index 431

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