Artificial Muscles PDF – Applications of Advanced Polymeric Nanocomposites
12.9 MB PDF
In this book, thorough reviews of existing knowledge in connection with ionic polymeric conductor nanocomposites (IPCNCs)—including ionic polymeric metal nanocomposites (IPMNCs) as biomimetic distributed nanosensors, nanoactuators, nanotransducers, nanorobots, artificial muscles, and electrically controllable intelligent polymeric network structures—are presented. Two brief introductory appendices on biological muscles are also presented to offer short reviews of how biological muscles work, how biomimetic actuator materials in general have been developed based on biological muscles, and how the latter are limited in their performance compared with biological muscles. This is intended to help provide motivation to understanding as well as a means of comparison for artificial muscle materials to be discussed and analyzed in this book.
Where possible, comparisons have been made with biological muscles and applications in noiseless, biomimetic marine propulsion and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and flapping-wing systems using such electroactive polymeric materials. Furthermore, the book introduces and discusses in detail methods of fabrication and manufacturing of several electrically and chemically active ionic polymeric sensors, actuators, and artificial muscles, such as polyacrylonitrile (PAN), poly(2-acrylamido- 2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic) acid (PAMPS), and polyacrylic-acidbis -acrylamide (PAAM), as well as a new class of electrically active composite muscles such as IPCNCs or IPMNCs. These discoveries have resulted in seven U.S. patents regarding their fabrication and application capabilities as distributed biomimetic nanoactuators, nanosensors, nanotransducers, nanorobots, and artificial muscles.
In this book, various methods of IPMNC manufacturing and fabrication are reported. In addition, manufacturing and characterization of PAN muscles are discussed. Conversion of chemical activation to electrical activation of artificial muscles using chemical plating techniques is described. Furthermore, other methodologies, such as physical/chemical vapor deposition methods or physical loading of a conductor phase into near boundary of such materials, are briefly discussed. The technologies associated with pH-activated muscles like PAN fibers have also been detailed. Experimental methods are described to characterize contraction, expansion, and bending of various actuators using isometric, isoionic, and isotonic characterization methods.
Several apparatuses for modeling and testing the various artificial muscles have been described to show the viability of application of chemoactive as well as electroactive muscles. Furthermore, fabrication methods of PAN fiber muscles in different configurations (such as spring-loaded fiber bundles, biceps, triceps, ribbon-type muscles, and segmented fiber bundles) to make a variety of biomimetic nanosensors and nanoactuators have been reported here.
Theories, modeling, and numerical simulations associated with ionic polymeric artificial muscles’ electrodynamics and chemodynamics have been discussed, analyzed, and modeled for the manufactured material. The book concludes with an extensive chapter on all current industrial and medical applications of IPMNCs as distributed biomimetic nanosensors, nanoactuators, nanotransducers, nanorobots, and artificial muscles.
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artificial muscles applications of advanced polymeric nanocomposites pdf