Anatomy and Physiology with Integrated Study Guide 6th Edition 2015 PDF

Integrated Study Guide



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Table of Contents

PART ONE
Organization of the Body 1

CHAPTER ONE
Introduction to the Human Body 1
Chapter Outline 1
Selected Key Terms 2
1.1 Anatomy and Physiology 2
1.2 Levels of Organization 2
1.3 Directional Terms 6
1.4 Body Regions 6
1.5 Body Planes and Sections 6
1.6 Body Cavities 9
1.7 Abdominopelvic Subdivisions 13
1.8 Maintenance of Life 13
Chapter Summary 17
Self-Review 18
Critical Thinking 18
Additional Resources 18

CHAPTER TWO
Chemicals of Life 24
Chapter Outline 24
Selected Key Terms 25
2.1 Atoms and Elements 25
2.2 Molecules and Compounds 28
2.3 Compounds Composing the Human Body 33
Chapter Summary 46
Self-Review 47
Critical Thinking 48
Additional Resources 48

CHAPTER THREE
Cell 49
Chapter Outline 49
Selected Key Terms 50
3.1 Cell Structure 50
3.2 Transport Across Plasma Membranes 56
3.3 Cellular Respiration 60
3.4 Protein Synthesis 61
3.5 Cell Division 63
Chapter Summary 66
Self-Review 68
Critical Thinking 68
Additional Resources 68

CHAPTER FOUR
Tissues and Membranes 69
Chapter Outline 69
Selected Key Terms 70
4.1 Epithelial Tissues 70
4.2 Connective Tissues 75
4.3 Muscle Tissues 81

PART TWO
Covering, Support, and
Movement of the Body 88

CHAPTER FIVE
Integumentary System 88
Chapter Outline 88
Selected Key Terms 89
5.1 Functions of the Skin 89
5.2 Structure of the Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue 89
5.3 Skin Color 93
5.4 Accessory Structures 94
5.5 Temperature Regulation 97
5.6 Aging of the Skin 99
5.7 Disorders of the Skin 100
Chapter Summary 101
Self-Review 102
Critical Thinking 102
Additional Resources 102

CHAPTER SIX
Skeletal System 103
Chapter Outline 103
Selected Key Terms 104
6.1 Functions of the Skeletal System 104
6.2 Bone Structure 104
6.3 Bone Formation 106
6.4 Divisions of the Skeleton 109
6.5 Axial Skeleton 109
6.6 Appendicular Skeleton 120
6.7 Articulations 125
6.8 Disorders of the Skeletal System 127
Chapter Summary 132
Self-Review 134
Critical Thinking 134
Additional Resources 134

CHAPTER SEVEN
Muscular System 135
Chapter Outline 135
Selected Key Terms 136
7.1 Structure of Skeletal Muscle 137
7.2 Physiology of Skeletal Muscle Contraction 141
7.3 Actions of Skeletal Muscles 147
7.4 Naming of Muscles 147
7.5 Major Skeletal Muscles 147
7.6 Disorders of the Muscular System 157
Chapter Summary 159
Self-Review 161
Critical Thinking 161
Additional Resources 161

PART THREE
Integration and Control 162

CHAPTER EIGHT
Nervous System 162
Chapter Outline 162
Selected Key Terms 163
8.1 Divisions of the Nervous System 163
8.2 Nervous Tissue 164
8.3 Neuron Physiology 167
8.4 Protection for the Central Nervous System 172
8.5 Brain 173
8.6 Spinal Cord 179
8.7 Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) 181
8.8 Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) 185
8.9 Disorders of the Nervous System 189
Chapter Summary 191
Self-Review 193
Critical Thinking 193
Additional Resources 193

CHAPTER NINE
Senses 194
Chapter Outline 194
Selected Key Terms 195
9.1 Sensations 195
9.2 General Senses 196
9.3 Special Senses 198
9.4 Disorders of The Special Senses 214
Chapter Summary 216
Self-Review 217
Critical Thinking 218
Additional Resources 218

CHAPTER TEN
Endocrine System 219
Chapter Outline 219
Selected Key Terms 220
10.1 The Chemical Nature of Hormones 220
10.2 Pituitary Gland 224
10.3 Thyroid Gland 228
10.4 Parathyroid Glands 230
10.5 Adrenal Glands 230
10.6 Pancreas 233
10.7 Gonads 236
10.8 Other Endocrine Glands and Tissues 237
Chapter Summary 237
Self-Review 239
Critical Thinking 239
Additional Resources 239

PART FOUR
Maintenance of the Body 240

CHAPTER ELEVEN
Blood 240
Chapter Outline 240
Selected Key Terms 241
11.1 General Characteristics of Blood 241
11.2 Red Blood Cells 242
11.3 White Blood Cells 244
11.4 Platelets 248
11.5 Plasma 248
11.6 Hemostasis 249
11.7 Human Blood Types 251
11.8 Disorders of the Blood 255
Chapter Summary 256
Self-Review 257
Critical Thinking 257
Additional Resources 257

CHAPTER TWELVE
The Cardiovascular System 258
Chapter Outline 258
Selected Key Terms 259
12.1 Anatomy of the Heart 259
12.2 Cardiac Cycle 266
12.3 Heart Conduction System 267
12.4 Regulation of Heart Function 268
12.5 Types of Blood Vessels 270
12.6 Blood Flow 273
12.7 Blood Pressure 274
12.8 Circulation Pathways 276
12.9 Systemic Arteries 276
12.10 Systemic Veins 281
12.11 Disorders of the Heart and Blood Vessels 286
Chapter Summary 287
Self-Review 289
Critical Thinking 289
Additional Resources 289

CHAPTER THIRTEEN
Lymphoid System and
Defenses Against Disease 290
Chapter Outline 290
Selected Key Terms 291
13.1 Lymph and Lymphatic Vessels 291
13.2 Lymphoid Organs 292
13.3 Lymphoid Tissues 295
13.4 Nonspecific Resistance 297
13.5 Immunity 299
13.6 Immune Responses 302
13.7 Rejection of Organ Transplants 304
13.8 Disorders of the Lymphoid System 304
Chapter Summary 306
Self-Review 307
Critical Thinking 307
Additional Resources 307

CHAPTER FOURTEEN
Respiratory System 308
Chapter Outline 308
Selected Key Terms 309
14.1 Structures of the Respiratory System 309
14.2 Breathing 315
14.3 Respiratory Volumes and Capacities 316
14.4 Control of Breathing 318
14.5 Factors Influencing Breathing 319
14.6 Gas Exchange 320
14.7 Transport of Respiratory Gases 321
14.8 Disorders of the Respiratory System 322
Chapter Summary 324
Self-Review 325
Critical Thinking 325
Additional Resources 325

CHAPTER FIFTEEN
Digestive System 326
Chapter Outline 326
Selected Key Terms 327
15.1 Digestion: An Overview 327
15.2 Alimentary Canal: General
Characteristics 327
15.3 Mouth 330
15.4 Pharynx and Esophagus 333
15.5 Stomach 334
15.6 Pancreas 336
15.7 Liver 338
15.8 Small Intestine 340
15.9 Large Intestine 344
15.10 Nutrients: Sources and Uses 345
15.11 Disorders of the Digestive System 350
Chapter Summary 352
Self-Review 354
Critical Thinking 354
Additional Resources 354

CHAPTER SIXTEEN
Urinary System 355
Chapter Outline 355
Selected Key Terms 356
16.1 Functions of the Urinary System 356
16.2 Anatomy of the Kidneys 357
16.3 Urine Formation 360
16.4 Excretion of Urine 366
16.5 Maintenance of Blood Plasma
Composition 368
16.6 Disorders of the Urinary System 371
Chapter Summary 372
Self-Review 373
Critical Thinking 373
Additional Resources 373

PART FIVE
Reproduction 374

CHAPTER SEVENTEEN
Reproductive Systems 374
Chapter Outline 374
Selected Key Terms 375
17.1 Male Reproductive System 375
17.2 Male Sexual Response 382
17.3 Hormonal Control of Reproduction in Males 382
17.4 Female Reproductive System 384
17.5 Female Sexual Response 389
17.6 Hormonal Control of Reproduction
in Females 389
17.7 Mammary Glands 392
17.8 Birth Control 393
17.9 Disorders of the Reproductive Systems 396
Chapter Summary 397
Self-Review 399
Critical Thinking 399
Additional Resources 399

CHAPTER EIGHTEEN
Development, Pregnancy,
and Genetics 400
Chapter Outline 400
Selected Key Terms 401
18.1 Fertilization and Early Development 401
18.2 Embryonic Development 403
18.3 Fetal Development 406
18.4 Hormonal Control of Pregnancy 407
18.5 Birth 409
18.6 Cardiovascular Adaptations 410
18.7 Lactation 413
18.8 Disorders of Pregnancy, Prenatal
Development, and Postnatal Development 413
18.9 Genetics 414
18.10 Inherited Diseases 418
Chapter Summary 419
Self-Review 421
Critical Thinking 421
Additional Resources 421

PART SIX
Study Guides 422
Appendices
A Keys to Medical Terminology 531
B Answers to Self-Review Questions 536
Glossary 538
Photo/Line Art Credits 553
Index 554


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