A New Approach in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Treatment PDF



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Preface

Diabetes mellitus is the most common endocrine metabolic disorder, affecting about 170 million people worldwide (1). It represents a group of diseases with complex heterogeneous etiology, characterized by chronic hyperglycemia with carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolic abnormalities(2), which are due to insulin deficiency and/or insulin resistance (3). These abnormalities result in the impairment of uptake and storage of glucose and reduced glucose utilization for energy purposes. Defects in glucose metabolizing machinery and consistent efforts of the physiological system to correct the imbalance in glucose metabolism place an over-exertion on the endocrine system. Continuing deterioration of endocrine control exacerbates the metabolic disturbances and leads primarily to hyperglycemia(4), then proceeds to the development of longterm complications, such as microangiopathy; nephropathy, neuropathy and retinopathy. The basis of these complications is a subject of great debate and research. Hyperglycemia and metabolic derangement are accused as the main causes of these long-standing changes in various organs. Hyperglycemia may also lead to increased generation of free radicals and reduced antioxidant defense system (3).


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